Farm and Ranch Terms

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Aeration: The practice of moving ambient air through stored grain to reduce grain deterioration and prevent storage losses. Aeration is a management tool that is essential to maintaining grain quality in both short-term and long-term storage.

Agricultural Land Commission (ALC): The governing body of all ALR lands in British Columbia with their head office located in Burnaby, BC.

Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR): Type of land designation in British Columbia intended to protect those lands deemed of agricultural importance to the province. If a property is located in the ALR and you wish to develop or subdivide, you will need to seek permission from the ALR’s governing body the Agricultural Land Commission (ALC).

Animal Unit Equivalent (AUE): An adjustment to the standard animal unit that takes into account that not all animals weigh 1,000 lbs and consume 26 lbs of dry matter per day.

Animal Unit Month (AUM): The amount of forage required by one Mature Animal Unit (MAU) grazing for one month.

Bushel: Unit of measurement for Volume commonly utilized for agricultural grain products.

Cattle Handling Infrastructure: Refers to a system of corrals, squeezes and loading designed to help organize and sort cattle for the purposes of branding, calving and loading for transport.

Combine/Combining: The combine, short for combine harvester, is an essential farming machine designed for efficient harvesting of mass quantities of grain. Modern combines can cut a swath through a field more than 40 feet wide. The name comes from combining three essential harvest functions – reaping, threshing and winnowing.

Community Pasture: A type of community/crown range land in the Peace River where resident ranchers may graze cattle in addition to their own lands. These are typically managed as natural ecosystems.

Cow/Calf Operation: A method of raising beef cows in which a permanent herd of cows are kept by a rancher to produce calves for later sale.

Gallons Per Minute (GPM): Common flow rate used to determine water well productivity and irrigation allowances.

Mature Animal Unit (MAU): Defined as one mature cow and her suckling calf cumulatively weighing approximately 1,000 lbs and requiring approximately 26 lbs of dry matter per day.

Mineral Rights: Mineral rights in British Columbia are administered by the Mineral Tenure Act and the Mineral Tenure Act Regulation. Title to minerals, or placer minerals may be acquired and maintained under these two provisions. A mineral title does not convey surface rights in British Columbia.[1]

Phase 1 Environmental Report: This is a preliminary investigation into a property and its historical use to determine the possibility of contamination on the property. A Phase 1 Environmental typically includes searching existing records for information regarding a site, interviewing past users of a site and determining the general location/degree of potential contamination.[2] Most investigations on farms/ranches do not necessitate further investigation.

Range Act: Governs crown range resources by providing licenses (15-25 year terms) or permits (up to 10 years) permitting ranchers to graze, or cut hay on range lands.

Reaping: The agricultural process of cutting of grain for harvest.

Riparian Area: These unique pieces of ground connect bodies of water to the land and are particularly sensitive to external disturbances. Riparian areas typically border lakes, streams and wetlands. Their blend of grass, trees and aquatic vegetation make them very important fish and wildlife habitat. Development in or near Riparian areas are governed by the Riparian Areas Protection Regulation.[3]

Silage: A type of livestock fodder, which has been preserved by acidification through fermentation. This is often achieved using a silo, or plastic wrap.

Stocking Rate: the number of animals on a certain amount of land (acre) over a certain period of time (grazing period). Generally expressed as Mature Animal Units (MAU) per unit of land area.[4]

Swathing: Swathing involves cutting the crop and placing it in rows held together by interlaced straws, supported above the ground by the remaining stubble.

Threshing: The agricultural process of separating grain from the physical plant.

Water Rights: The right to divert and utilize surface and ground water for domestic, or agricultural purposes. Water rights in British Columbia are governed by the Water Protection Act and the Water Sustainability Act.

Winnowing: The agricultural process of separating grain from the chaff.

Yearling Operation: A method of raising beef cows in which weaned cows are purchased in the spring and subsequently grazed as yearlings throughout the spring and summer months to be sold at market in the fall.

Measurements (Acre Conversions):

Sqft/Acre: 43,560 Sqft per 1 Acre

Acre/Hectares: 2.47 Acres per 1 Hectare

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